- To highlight the religion of the Bhagavad-Gita.
- To discuss the philosophy of Bhagavad-Gita.
As per methodology is concerned, this paper is primarily based on secondary data collected through reviewing books, souvenir and internet sources. Hence, the discussion of this paper is made on the basis of this data. However, some valuable information was collected from the persons having knowledge on this subject. Moreover some personal observation and views are added in this paper.
makarmaphalaheturbhurmatesangohastvakarmani// ibid. II-47
sreyansvadharmauvigunahparadharmatsvanusthitat/ ibid. III-35
svabhabaniyatam karma kurvannapnotikilvisam// ibid. XVIII-47
sahajam karma kaunteyasadosamapinatyajet// ibid. XVIII-48
The purpose of karma-yoga according to the Gita is public benefit i.e. lokasangraha.Tilak the scholar of modern India, defines it as “making wise those persons who behave recklessly as a result of ignorance and keeping them together in a happy state and putting them on the path of self-amelioration.” This right of the Lord is acquired by the enlightened, and so is the duty created for them by the creator. Tilak asserts that the jnani has no right to renounce, but has to set an example, failing which, the world will get destroyed. The Lord Himself incarnates often for the universal welfare. Secondly, for the perfect, the difference of ‘I’ ‘the world’ and ‘the Lord’ disappears. So, the Lords acts through the medium of the scents, and the nature of such an act is of universal welfare.
The Bhagavadgita combines many different elements from Samkhya and Vedanta philosophy. In matters of religion, its important contribution was the new emphasis placed on devotion, which has since remained a central path in Hinduism. In addition, the popular theism expressed elsewhere in the Mahabharata and the transcendentalism of the Upanishads converge, and a God of personal characteristics is identified with the brahman of the Vedic tradition. The Bhagavadgita thus gives a typology of the three dominant trends of Indian religion: dharma-based householder life, enlightenment-based renunciation and devotion-based theism.
A fairly popular text from the time of its composition, the Bhagavadgita gained much more prominence beginning in the early 18th century when British and European scholars discovered and translated it. Though many Hindus do not know it or use it, Vedanta philosophy recognizes it, with the Upanishads and the Brahma-sutras (brief doctrinal rules concerning brahman), as an authoritative text, so that all philosophers wrote commentaries on it. It continued co shape the attitudes of Hindus in the 20th centuries, as is evident from the lives of such diverse personalities as the Indian nationalist Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi.
The Bhagavadgita, by demanding that God's worshipers fulfill their duties - "better one's own duty ill-done than another's well-performed"
svadharmenidhanamsreyahparadharmobhayabahah// Gita III-35) - and observed the rules of moral conduct, bridged the chasm between ascetic disciplines and the search for emancipation on the one hand and the exigencies of daily life, more particular rules of the caste system, on the other. For those who must live in the world, the Bhagavadgita gave a moral code and a prospect of final liberation. Thus, the work supported a social ethic. Because God is in all beings as their physical and psychical substratum, and because he exists collectively in human society, the wise should not see any difference between their creatures. The devotee should be impartial-the same to friend as to foe. The serious endeavor of realizing God's presence in human beings obliges a person to promote the welfare of both individuals and society. yet, by emphasizing that all humans have not only different propensities for each of the three disciplines of release but also different responsibilities because of their births in different castes, the Bhagavadgita also provided a powerful justification for the caste system.
Notes and References
jnanamlabdhaparamsantimacirenadhigacati// Ibid. IV. 39
sradhamayohayampurusoyoyacchradhahsaavasah//Ibid., XVII. 3
Ibid., XVII. 3
upadekhyantitejnanamynaninastavadarsinah//Ibid., IV. 34
Ibid., VII. 17-19
Motilal,Banarasidass (1988) ‘Srimadbhagavadgita with the commentary of Sankaracarya’, Srisankaracaryagranthavali, Vol. II, Delhi
Radhakrishnan, S. (2004), ‘Bhagavadgita’ (tr. and ed.), Harper Collins Publishers, Delhi