CLIMATE CHANGE, REALISM AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

Bhabesh Gogoi
Soil Scientist
Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India

Introduction
Climate change is a natural process and it is unavoidable on the planet earth. However, at the dawn in the recent years, climate change has become a major policy issue in the international and environmental agenda. Owing to the potentiality global climate change, all countries are faced with immediate concerns related to forest & land degradation, fresh water shortage, food security, air and water pollution and most importantly- it threats to the existence of all living being on earth.

The impact of global climate change will be particularly severe in the tropical areas, which mainly consist of developing countries, including India. In India, nearly 700 million rural populations directly depends on climate sensitive sectors (such as- agriculture, forests and fishery) and natural resources (such as- water, biodiversity, mangroves, coastal zones, grassland) for their subsistence and livelihoods (Gogoi, 2010).

Thus, taking into consideration of the serious end results of global warming, this article describes the causes, consequences & combating measures in relation to rapid climate change on the planet earth.

What is Weather & Climate Change?
Climate is often spoken about at the same time as weather, but it is something quite different. The weather is all around us, all the time. It is an important part of our lives and one that we cannot control. The weather is the state or situation of the atmosphere at a particular time and place. It is a physical atmospheric phenomena associated with air masses and their interactions. It includes the condition and motion of these masses, including the temperatures, winds, clouds, and precipitation produced by them. Weather on Earth occurs primarily in the troposphere or lower atmosphere, and is driven by energy from the sun and the rotation of the earth.

Climate is nothing but the common, average weather condition of a place over a long period of time (for example, more than 30 years). Thus, the simplest way to describe climate is to look at average temperature and precipitation over time. Other useful elements for describing climate include the type and the timing of precipitation, amount of sunshine, average wind speeds and directions, number of days above freezing, weather extremes, and local geography. Therefore, climate is defined as an area's long-term weather patterns.

Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability i.e. in the prevailing state of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of the individual weather events. Besides, global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises).  It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature.

Evidences of Global Climate Change
The consequences of global warming are- rising sea levels, disappearance of islands and low lying coastal areas, increasing water stress, glaciers retreat, increased risk of extinction of some valuable species, health hazards etc. At present,observed changes in temperature, precipitation, snow cover, sea level and extreme weather conditions confirm that the rapid changes in global climate is a reality.   Some of the extreme events due to accelerated climate change are listed below (Gogoi and Dutta, 2010).

i.          Mumbai received 37 inches of rain in only 24 hours in July of 2005, which is the largest downpour recoded in an Indian city. More to the point, heavy rains in February, 2004 caused serious floods in the UK.
ii.       The month of July, 2002 in India turned out to be the driest in the recorded history since 1877.
iii.           A twenty days heat wave during May, 2003 in Andhra Pradesh, India where maximum temperature reached as high as 45-50OC, leaded to 1500 deaths. On the other hand, France had its warmest summer on record in July- August, 2003 where >14,000 people died.
iv.          Thousands of deaths were attributed to extremely cold conditions in India and Bangladesh during January, 2003.
v.            Hurricane ‘Katrina’ devastates large area in US in August, 2005 killing hundreds of people and causing up to $30 billion property loss. Scientists have noted that such weather conditions have grown in number and intensity by around 30% over the last decade.
vi.          The oceans have already absorbed 50% of the total CO2 that we have produced since the industrial revolution. A study in 2008 indicates that the oceans are now soaking 10 million tonnes less CO2.
vii.         The relative mean sea level in Bay of Bengal is rising @ 3.14 mm/ yr due to warming. From this Bangladesh and Maldives Islands will suffer earlier than others. Maldives are a nation of 1190 islands with on average height of about 1.5 meters above sea-levels; and altitude of Bangladesh is on an average about 5 meter msl.
viii.        Rising sea level has submerged Suparibhanga and Lohacharra islands in Sundarbans, a dozen others are threatened on the western end of inner estuary.
ix.          2008 witnessed the opening of the Northern Sea Route along the Arctic Siberian coast- the passage have probably not been open simultaneously since before the last ice age (some 1,00, 000 years ago).
x.            The Greenland ice sheet, which could raise sea levels by six meters if it melted away, is currently losing more than 100 cubic km a year- faster than can be explained by natural melting.
xi.          Himalayan glaciers have shown an overall reduction in area from 2077 km2 in1962 to 1628 km2 at present.
xii.         Dubai for the first time received snowfall in the first week of the January, 2005. Besides, Moscow received snowfall in June, 2003 for the first time since 1963.
    
Agriculture, which is the backbone particularly for the developing countries, is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields of desirable crops while encouraging weed and pest proliferation. Changes in precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-run crop failures and long-run production declines. Although there will be gains in some crops in some regions of the world through some encouraging biological consequences in one way (Gogoi, 2009), the overall impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected to be negative, threatening global food security. In March of 2004, due to increase in 3- 60C temperature in Indo- Gangetic plains, wheat crop matured earlier by 10- 20 days, resulting in decline in wheat production by more than 4 million tonnes in the country. Scientists from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, reported about the possibility of loss of 4- 5 million tonnes in wheat production with every rise of 10C temperature. Besides, rice yield in Philippines was estimated to decline 10% for each 10C increase in the minimum temperature during the dry season.

Insect pest population have a tendency to fluctuate as a result of their inherent characteristics as influenced by the changed environmental factors. Recent observations at Jorhat and Titabor area of Assam indicate that white stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata) population is increasing and constitute more than 40% of total borer population in rice field, which might be due to changes in environmental factors. Besides, Calopepla leana, a major pest (defoliator) of Gmelina arborea is creating havoc among the Forest departments and tree planters of Assam, since last few years. Complete defoliation of the agar tree (Aquilaria malaccensis) due to Heortia vittesoides - a lepidopteron pest, has becoming serious in recent past that leads to heavy economic losses to the agar planters of NE India.  Although the reasons have not been worked out, the role of climate change on the abundance of these pests cannot be ruled out (Gogoi et al. 2011).

Thus, the evidences in response to global climate change are horrifying, but it tells us the truth. This problem requires creative solutions to maintain the balance of ecosystem and to check the unnatural climate change.

Causes of Global Climate Change
In modern times, human activities are now a significant factor causing climate to change. This is evident in recent rise in carbon dioxide including other Green House Gases (GHGs) such as- methane, chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs), carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide etc. in the atmosphere leading to increase in global temperature.

Naturally, the earth’s atmosphere has been accumulating heat in a slow and continuous way chiefly by thespecial optical properties of carbon dioxide. The radiation from the sun comes in the forms of short wave having high energy and passes through the atmosphere to touch the earth’s surface, it absorbs short wave solar radiation and releases it as long wave infrared radiation. This long wave radiations having low energy can’t easily passed out, and absorbed by the atmospheric gasses leading to a warming effect on the earth which makes this planet suitable for life forms. This warming effect is nothing but the Green House effect.

In general, an atmospheric concentration of 330 ppm CO2 is adequate to support life on earth. However, its concentration currently is increasing at the rate of 1.5 ppm by volume per year (Lal, 2003). Harvey and Danney (2000) reported that the CO2 levels would reach 600, 1300 and 1800 ppm in the year 2100, 2200 and 2400 respectively, if this present trend continues. This will likely to be increased the global temperature up to 1.8- 4.0oC by the end of the century as shown by The Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001).

CO2 is emitted into the air mainly as human exhale, burning fossil fuels, land use change and due to tropical deforestation. In the world, U.S. continues to emit more CO2 than any other country (23.06%), followed by China (14.07%), where as India contribute 4.07% of total global CO2 emissions.

1. Biomass burning and carbon loss
The burning of forest with uncontrolled and destructive wild fire are frequent consequences every year throughout the world. Forest fire is devastating not only for our forest wealth but also release the accumulated carbon as CO2 in to the atmosphere at once from several hectares of forest areas. Here, carbon stored in the form of standing stock, under story, ground cover and as litters in the forest released in to the atmosphere at a single movement. Not only this, the harsh fires also release the soil carbon of upper layer in to atmosphere. Thus,biomass burning is recognized as a significant global source of emission contributing as much as 40% of gross carbon dioxide and 30% of tropospheric ozone. Srivastava et al. (2003) reported that every year about 8700 Tg (Tg = Teragram = 1012 g) biomass have been burned across the world that releases 3940 Tg carbon into the atmosphereannually.

2. Industrialization and vehicle release
Processes such as fossil fuel burning in industry, motor vehicles and buildings emit pollutants that cause local and regional pollution. These pollutants include particulate matter (PM) and ground-level ozone (O3) along with nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO). The same processes also release greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which are linked to global climate change.
Highway vehicles release about 1.6 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere each year mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), that contributed to global climate change. Each gallon of gasoline you burn creates 20 pounds of CO2.

3. CO2emission through soil respiration
A large part of CO2enrichment in the atmosphere comes directly or indirectly from soil. The depletion of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is mainly caused by decomposition of organic matter or soil respiration, which is accelerated by agricultural activities, including biomass burning, ploughing, drainage and low input farming. The rate of soil respiration (that releases CO2) primarily depends on soil temperature, moisture regimes and soil texture.
Generally, grass covered soil released more CO2 than that of forest vegetation. Similarly, newly cropped plots generated by slash and burn release more CO2 than an uncut forest plot.  Generally, CO2 emission by soil respiration varies widely with in different types of vegetation. The lowest rate of soil respiration occur in the coldest (Tundra and Northern bogs) and driest (deserts) biomass, and the highest rates occur in tropical moist forests where both temperature and moisture availability are high in year round.

4. Tillage and cultivation effect on GHGs release
Tillage is a mechanical manipulation of soil with the help of tools and implements for getting a good tilth of soil and thereby subsequent growth of plants. Such tillage operations physically disrupt aggregates and expose the encapsulated (protected) carbon to microbial processes which increases SOC mineralization in soils.

It's not just carbon dioxide that is the problem, gases including methane and nitrous oxide are also produced in significant quantities, released through various sources including animal waste and fertiliser use. Livestock farming produces 37% and 65% of our global methane and nitrous oxide emissions respectively. Both gases are much more potent than carbon dioxide. Therefore, with the highest livestock populations in the world, India has been blamed for releasing more CH4 as livestock releases this gas due to their ruminant nature of food digestion.

Besides, this is also well established that cultivation of rice under water logged conditions releases methane (CH4) gas into the atmosphere. Rice plant act as a conduit through which CH4 produced in the soil is transported to the atmosphere.

5. Deforestation
Forests are the major reservoir of terrestrial above ground carbon and contain an estimated 66% of terrestrial above ground carbon. So, deforestation can contributed to large volume of CO2 to atmosphere either by reducing the amount stored in above ground biomass or increasing the oxidation of soil organic carbon. Except India, there seems to be and overall decline in tropical forest cover. Deforestation is highest in Ivory Coast, followed by Philippines and then in Thailand. Currently, global deforestation is 15 x 10 6 ha annually, releasing 1.6 x 1015 g carbon annually to the atmosphere (Dixon et al., 1994).

Terrestrial Ecosystem- As Carbon Stock for Mitigating Global Climate Change

The terrestrial ecosystem is a major biological scrubber of atmospheric CO2, where plants and the pedosphere can be an effective “sinks”.

There are five principal natural carbon dioxide sinks viz., oceanic pool, soil carbon pool, geologic pool, biotic pool and atmospheric pool. Oceans are the largest active carbon sinks estimated at 38,000 Pg, followed by geological pool (5000 Pg), soil carbon pool (2500 Pg), atmospheric pool (760Pg) and biotic pool (560 Pg) (Lal, 2003). The Soil Carbon pool comprises two components, the Soil Organic Carbon pool with 1550 Pg of C in the top 1m. depth and Soil Inorganic Carbon pool containing 950 Pg C.Globally, carbon stocks in soil are more as compared to carbon stocks in vegetation by a factor of above five.

Rastogi et al., (2002) reported that carbon stored in agricultural soil is 170 Gt (Gt = Gigha ton = 109 ton), while the entire vegetation contains 550 Gt carbon. Soils are the major C pool and are estimated to contain 1220 to 1550 Pg C in organic form and almost half in inorganic form.

In India, the amount of carbon stored in the soil is 23.4 to 27.1 Gt, which is 1.6 to 1.8% of the total world reserve. Among the different states in India, SOC pool in forests is height in Arunachal Pradesh (1702.08 million tonnes) followed by Madhya Pradesh (1505.59 million tonnes). Average SOC/ha also highest in Arunachal Pradesh (with 248.11 t/ha) and lowest in Rajasthan (16.87 t/ha) as compared to national average (153.63 t/ha) in the states. Central Penninsular region contributed 37.25% (3656.70 million tonnes) of total SOC pool of Indian soil followed by North Eastern region with 37.19% (3650.54 million tonnes) (Jha et al., 2003).

Several studies have established the fact that carbon sequestration by forest trees and sustainable management in Agriculture could provide relatively low cost net emission reductions. Tree based land use practices could be viable alternatives to store atmospheric CO2 due to their cost effectiveness, high potential of carbon uptake and associated environmental as well as social benefits.As such the potential of terrestrial ecosystem to sequester carbon can play an important role in the overall management of carbon.

What is Carbon Sequestration?
The meaning ofcarbon sequestration lies in the capturing CO2 from the atmosphere and its secure storage, that would otherwise be emitted to or remain in the atmosphere. Thus, the terrestrial carbon sequestration is a biological process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by trees, plants and crops through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass of plants and in soils. The idea is to capturing CO2 in a practical way in the physiological system of plants to combat against unprecedented increase of CO2, and diverting them to secure storage (Gogoi, 2010).

At present, drawing of CO2 out of the air and sequestering it in to soil and biomass is the only known practical way of removing large volume of GHGs from the atmosphere to side with the problem of global warming.

Agricultural and Forestry options of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration
Specific options for terrestrial carbon sequestration include the following practices –

1. Soil Conservation through mulch materials
Mechanical tillage leads todepleted of SOC in agricultural soils especially due to soil erosion whereas adoption of conservation tillage increases SOC concentration by reducing soil disturbance, increasing infiltration, conserving soil water, and increasing soil biodiversity.

Returning crop residues to soil through mulch farming has converted many soils from “source” to “sink” of atmospheric CO2. One of the major reasons of degradation of marginal lands is no-addition of crop residues to the soil.

2. Crop rotation/ Green manuring/ Cover crops
Soil organic carbon sequestration can greatly be enhanced by crop rotation, green manuring and by growing cover crops in the rotation cycle. Ecosystems with high biodiversity absorb and sequester more C than those with low or reduced biodiversity. Frequent use of legumes and grasses in rotation with food crops is an important strategy to enhance organic C in soil. Legume-based crop rotation can preserve more residues C in soil, particularly from root biomass than soils under monoculture

3. Role of forestry in carbon sequestration
Ability of forests vegetation and soil as terrestrial carbon sinks to absorb CO2 emission and mitigate climate change has attracted wide attention. Currently, total above ground biomass in world’s forest is 421 x 109 tonnes distributed over 3,869 mllion ha which stores 1200 Gt C (in vegetation and soil). The total carbon in Indian forest vegetation and forest soil were estimated respectively at 4178.95 and 5399.33  Tg . 

Hard wood contains about 48% of carbon in the form of cellulose in wood, and it is estimated that 2.2 tonnes of wood is required to sequester one tonne of carbon. On an average trees consist of approximately 25% carbon by weight and oven dried wood is approximately 50% carbon by weight. Thus, absorbing CO2 from air and looking it in the forest biomass is one of the potential and practical ways of removing large volume of CO2 from atmosphere.
                  
The fast growing trees have more potential to capture and store the atmospheric CO2 at faster rate in comparison to slow growing species. Pine plantation can accumulate almost 100 metric tonnes of C per acre after 90 years or roughly one metric tonne of C per acre per year. Every hectare of actively growing forest sequesters between 2 and 5 tonnes of carbon per year.

4. Role of agroforestry in carbon sequestration
Agroforestry practices could render not only economic benefit through supplying food, fodder, fuelwood, fibre, timber, medicine and other non-wood products etc., but also, to some extent, play a vital role in mitigating the diverse effects of environmental degradation. Thus, integration of agriculture and forestry on the same piece of land under same management system can be a promising practical option to sequester a large volume of CO2 from the atmosphere, besides meeting the demands of present generation in a sustainable manner.

Agro-forestry if adopted at a rate of 2 to 4% annually, could reduce annual carbon emissions by about 38 to 66 million tonnes. Establishment of new agroforestry system in 2 x 106 ha annually may help in conserving 10 Pg C.

5. Integrated nutrient management
Judicious nutrient management is crucial to humidification of C in the residue and to soil C sequestration. Presently, nutrient application through both organic and inorganic sources becomes essential for achieving the twin goals viz., sustaining higher productivity and maintaining the soil fertility at fairly high level over a longer period. Application of different sources and levels of nutrients may be a feasible option as well as an inevitable measure of nutrient management in coming years to boost the foodgrain production as well as to increase the carbon sequestration potential of soil.

Organic farming generally enhances soil fertility and increase SOC pool a it hatens biological activity of soil than conventional farming system. Researcher acros the world reported that- continuous application of cattle manure enhanced SOC concentration by 30% compared with equivalent nitrogen, phosphorus and potash treatment. On the other hand, combine use of manure, compost and fertilizer over 144 years showed 100% SOC gain in UK. Integrated use of fertilizer and manure for 20 years increased the SOC content in 0 to 10 cm depth of sandy soil by 0.2% in Ludhiana, 0.6% in Jabalpur and 0.5% in Bhubaneswar (Nambiar, 1995).

6. Soil water management
Increasing available water in the root zone of a drought-prone soil can enhance biomass production, which increase the amount of above-ground and the root biomass. This biomass ultimately returned to the soil and improves soil organic carbon concentration. Irrigation can also enhance SOC concentration in grassland and orchards.

Although, irrigation is essential to obtaining high yields in drought-prone soils, excessive and inappropriate irrigation can also cause rise in the water table, waterlogging, and salinization. Such, restricted surface or subsoil drainage with poor quality of irrigation water may reduce biomass productivity and there by leads to decrease in SOC pool. In contrast, reclamation of salt-affected soils can improve soil quality, increase biomass productivity, and enhance SOC pool.

7. Restoration of degraded soils
Improved land use management is an essential prerequisite for carbon sequestration to manage carbon degraded soils so as to restore soil organic matter levels. Wastelands, in India cover more than 100 million ha of which 70% is carbon-degraded. These soils have relatively high potential for accumulating organic carbon in vegetation and in soil, if suitable trees are grown along with proper soil conservation measures. 

Restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems has a high potential of soil C sequestration. Through adoption of judicious land use practices such as- application of nutrients in soils of low fertility and lime in acid soils, afforestation through establishing appropriate woody shrubs and trees etc. can restore SOC pool in degraded soil. In sodic soil of North Central India, the SOC pool increased from <10 Mg C/ha to about 45 Mg C/ha over an 8-year period under different tree species (Garg, 1998).     Afforestation, however, may not always enhance SOC pool. In New Zealand, Groenedijk et al. (2002) reported that afforestation of pastures with radiata pine (Pinus radiata) decreased SOC concentration by 15% to a depth of 12 to 18 cm. These researchers concluded that afforestation of pasture soils of hilly countries resulted in net mineralization of SOC pool.

Raising of trees on degraded soils does not result in forest like situation but still can remarkably enhance SOC. Singh and Singh (1993) reported an increased of SOC from 0.12% to a maximum of 0.58% through raising trees on alkali soils of Karnal.

8. Management of grazing land for carbon sequestration
Land degradation and desertification are serious problems on grazing lands, especially in regions prone to excessive and uncontrolled grazing. Grazing lands in arid and semiarid regions are susceptible to both wind and water erosion. Therefore, management of pasture land through some technological options such as nutrient management, growing appropriate species, fire management, controlled grazing etc. can enhance soil quality and SOC pool.

With a total global grazing land area of 3.46 billion ha, the potential of SOC sequestration in grazing land is 1.87 Pg C/yr (Lal, 2003). Grazing land has a potential to sequester 0.54 Mg C/ha/yr through appropriate practices of SOC sequestration.

Conclusion
Global warming is an international problem and mitigation of global climate change is a horrendous task. All the countries of the world have to work hand in glove in an organized manner to tame the rapid change in the earth’s atmosphere.  For this, all people (from the grass-shoot level) have to be aware regarding the causes and consequences of global climate change. Everybody should be a firm believer that climate change is real, which is impacted by human behaviour and carbon emissions.  And as a consequence, all of us should get an obligation to future generations to do something about it.

With increasing population from 6 billion in 2000 to 8 billion by 2020, the necessity of food production will be more than ever before. The techniques of soil organic carbon sequestration outlined herein will be needed to meet the food demands of the growing population regardless of the threat of global warming, and might be the most cost-effective and feasible option for the 21st century to mitigate the global warming. Thus, the potential of SOC sequestration is finite and only a short term solution. Yet, SOC sequestration buys us time to make a bridge to the future during which non-carbon fuel alternatives can take effect.

References
B.Gogoi (2009). “Contribution of CO2 to climate change: the impact, issues and the controversy”,Our   Earth, 5(4).
B.Gogoi (2010). “Technological options for mitigating the carbon dioxide leaded climate change effects”,Journal of Tropical Forestry, 26 (4).
B.Gogoi and B. K. Dutta (2010). “Early Sign of Global Climate Change”,Journal- Nature and Environment, 2 (2 & 3).
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G.Singh and N.T. Singh (1993). “Mesquite for Vegetation of Salt-affected Soils “(Research Bulletin No. 18). Karnal :Central Soil Salinity Research Institute.
K.K.M. Nambiar. (1995). In V. Barnett, Payne, R. and R. Steiner (Eds.), Agricultural Sustainability : Economic, Environmental and Statistical Considerations, Wiley, UK1995,pp. 130-170.
L.Harvey and D. Danney. Global Warming: The Hard Science. Harlow: Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Ltd., U.K, 2000.
R.K. Dixon, S. Brown; R.A. Houghton, A.M. Solomon, M.C. Trexler and J. Wisniewski (1994). Science, 263: p.185.
R.Lal. (2003). “Global potential of soil carbon sequestration to mitigate the greenhouse effect”, Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 22(2), pp.151-184.
V.K. Garg. Interaction of tree crops with a sodic soil environment: potential for rehabilitation of degraded environments. Land Degradation andDevelopment, 1998. Pp. 9, 81-93.

Note: This article was published in Arthavigyan Patrika, Vol-III, No.I, 2013, published by Economic Forum, D.C.B. Girls' College, Jorhat, Assam.

About the Author: GOGOI, BHABESH; master in Agricultural Sciences with specialization in Soil Science from Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam (India), has started his carrier as Research Assistant in Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat, Assam in 2001. Further, he worked as Scientist and Head in Charge of Advanced Research Centre for Bamboo & Rattan, (Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education, Dehradun), Aizawl, Mizoram. He is, at present, serving as Soil Scientist at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam (India); and also engaged in a long term project- All India Coordinated Research Project on Integrated Farming System at AAU Centre, Jorhat.[Read More]

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