A STUDY ON EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF SCHEDULED CASTE AND SCHEDULED TRIBE PEOPLE IN CHIRANG DISTRICT

Assistant Professor
Department of Education
Upendra Nath Brahma College, Kajalgaon, Chirang, Assam, India
Abstract
Education is necessary if our country is to attain its rightful place in the community of nations in conformity with its great cultural heritage and its unique potentialities. The development of any aspect of the society will remain stagnant without proper education.  So, education of the nation refers accessibility of the citizens in education irrespective of their caste, class, creed, language, race, region etc. However, in Chirang district where people of different community are living since long back and their education and socio-economic status is not satisfactory. In this regard a systematic study on exploration/ ascertaining of education of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe people is urgently needed. So, this study will help us to know the participation and educational status of  Scheduled Caste and Scheduled tribes students therefore, in brief it is said that the study of “ Educational status of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe people in Chirang district” has great significant and important in the modern age of education.

Keywords: Socio-economic status, accessibility, exploration, ascertaining
1.Introduction

Education is necessary if our country is to attain its rightful place in the community of nations in conformity with its great cultural heritage and its unique potentialities. Education is also one of the most important symbols of status and prestige in the society for an individual and is taken as an index of his/her all round development. (Halsey, 1961) states that “Education is a major basis of socio-economic progress of a society and of an individual as well. It is the most potent builder of a nation and equips the societies with the fittest who are capable of being adaptive and it is the critical provider of the higher learning, which is a major tool for bringing about socio-economic transformation. That’s why education has special significance, particularly for the weaker sections of the society; So, education is an input not only for their economic development but also for instilling in them self-confidence and inner strength, thereby enabling them to face the new and unforeseen challenges.
After formation of Chirang district in 2003, the government of India as well as Assam has taken a number of steps to strengthen the educational base of SC and ST People in Chirang district. Provision of opening educational institutions on priority basis in the district predominantly inhabited by these communities, provision of incentives like scholarship, mid-day meals, free uniforms, books and stationery, reservation of seats in educational institutions, relaxation of standards for admission to institutions of higher learning. But these communities still have to go a long way to come-up in the field of educational development. Education acquires special significance for the SC and ST people of the societies in Chirang district of Assam, in which these People are facing a variety of age-old problems leading to severe exploitation due to the more illiteracy and lack of socio-economic development. Whereas education is helpful in setting the progress of development not only to sociability adjust themselves properly to the changing conditions of the society but also provide them an opportunity to prove their mental faculties to face the new challenges confronting the societies.
2.Objectives
i)To find out the literacy rate of SC and ST people in Chirang district.
ii)To study the enrolment of SC and ST students of higher secondary school in Chirang district.
3.Methodology
The present study is delimited in the following aspect: (a) The study is delimited to the SC & ST people only and (b)The present study is delimited to the SC and ST students studying at Higher Secondary level in Chirang district. For the present study the researcher has used descriptive survey method and data has collected from both the primary and secondary sources.
All the data has collected from selected higher secondary schools and the data has analyzed and interpreted by using statistical technique like Percentile test.
4.Results and Discussion
4.1Educational Status of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe People in Chirang District
The Chirang district is a newly constructed district in the BTC area of the state. It has been carved out from Bongaigaon district, as per 2011 census it is the second list populous district in the state, after Dimahasao districts of Assam, the district also enjoy its natural beauty and natural flora and fauna. The people of different caste, community and religion are mingled here and live peacefully. Although Chirang is comprised of Boro majority people, but all the people of this district enjoys equal rights and opportunity. The medium of instruction or the official language is Bodo/Assamese/Hindi and the educational system is improving day by day by the help of state government of Assam. According to 2011 census, there are 6 numbers of colleges, 24 numbers of high and higher secondary school, 112 upper primary school and 922 lower primary Schools. This institution has jointly working on the development of education for the progress of the district, as per 2011 census total population in the district was 481,818 in which Male was 244,673 and Female 237,143 and their literacy rate  was 63.55% in which Male was 70.24% and Female was 56.65% respectively. Generally in the district the Scheduled Tribes majority is high but they are less educated then the general and Scheduled Castes people. The growth literacy rate of SC and ST people in Chirang district is shown below:
 
 Table 1: Growth Literacy rate among SC & ST people in Chirang district

Year
Districts
Gen
SC
ST
1991
Bongaigaon
28.27
10.74
17.53
2001
Bongaigaon
59.0
57.7
62.7
2001
Chirang
52.61
28.67
9.49
2011
Chirang
63.55
42.21
33.01








Sources: calculated based on census data of Chirang and Assam

The Chirang district was attached with the Bongaigaon district till 2004, after that it was constituted as a separate district from Bongaigaon district and the literacy rate of various people has been prepared as per 2001 census of Bongaigaon district. So, in the above table it has shown the census report of 2001and 2011 of Chirang district.
4.2Percentage of SC & ST Students’ Enrolment of H. S. Schools in Chirang District
The researcher has shown the percentage of SC and ST students’ enrolment in the following table.
Table 2: Percentage of SC & ST students’ enrolment of H. S. Schools in Chirang district

Session
Class
Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Tribes
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
2011-12
XI
3.50
2.64
39.22
41.24
XII
2.56
2.29
38.64
30.0
2012-13
XI
4.83
3.60
34.15
38.33
XII
2.94
2.94
33.66
41.21
2013-14
XI
4.07
2.71
29.34
27.73
XII
3.13
2.35
29.57
28.99

 




Source: Data collected from I.S. office, Kajalgaon

The major findings of the study can be summarized as under:

i)According to 2001 census report the literacy rate in Chirang district were 52.61% and out of which SC literacy rate was 28.67% and ST literacy was 9.49%. This literacy percentage revealed that the literacy rate of SCs better than the STs Literacy percentage. In the same year the General literacy percentage was higher than the SCs and STs Literacy percentage.

ii)The SC and ST people in Chirang district were not initially highly educated. But later on they became educated in very high speed. It is found that in 2011census report the literacy rate in Chirang district is 63.55% out of which 42.21% among SCs and 33.01% among STs respectively.

iii)It is observed that the session of 2011-2012, in class XI the SC boys students were 3.50% and girls students were 2.64% and in class XII the SC boys students were 2.56% and girls students were 2.29% respectively and in class XI the ST boys students were 39.22% and girls students were 41.24% and in class XII the ST boys students were 38.64% and girls students were 30.0% respectively.

iv)It is observed that in the session of 2012-2013, in class XI the SC boys students were 4.83% and girls students were 3.60% and in class XII the SC boys students were 2.94% and girls students were 2.94% respectively and in class XI the ST boys students were 34.15% and girls students were 38.33% and in class XII the ST boys students were 33.66% and girls students were 41.21% respectively.

v)It is also found that the session of 2013-2014, in class XI the SC boys students were 4.07% and girls students were 2.71% and in class XII the SC boys students were 3.13% and girls students were 2.35% respectively and in class XI the ST boys students were 29.34% and girls students were 27.73% and in class XII the ST boys students were 29.57% and girls students were 28.99% respectively.

4.4Policy Implication
  • The government should take initiative for hostel accommodation in the School.
  • Adult Education should be encouraged to motivate the parents or guardian regarding education.
  • Some sort of counseling guidance should be arranged for the parents to make them aware about the importance of education in their life.
  • The government organization should provide some free cost of book and other learning materials up to 10+2 level.
  • The child labor should be stopped to the age groups 6 to 14 year.
  • Implementation of the Right to Education Act, 2009 in this area.

5.Conclusion

From the present study, it is observed that the SC and ST people in Chirang district were not initially highly educated. But later on they became educated in very high speed. It is found that in 2011census report the literacy rate in Chirang district is 63.55% out of which 42.21% among SCs and 33.01% among STs respectively. Again, the enrolment of SC and ST students in higher secondary education is not satisfactory as compared to the other groups of people in the district. All though attempt has been made by the state government as well as central government for their better improvement in education but their result is not satisfactory. Hence, the constitutional commitment is there to provide safe guard to protect the Scand ST people against any injustice in the matter of establishment of an admission to educational institutions and grant from state funds but yet that safe guard is hardly implemented and excited.                              

References
  • A. Agarwal (2000). Study of some educational problems of Scheduled Castes Students. Indian Journal of Educational Research, 19(1), pp.37-41.
  • Babu & M. Jeji (1980). “Educational Progress is Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (1967-68 to 1977-78)”, EPA Bulletin, pp. 30-39.
  • J. L. Azad (1976). “Education of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes”, Journal of Indian Education, 1(6), Pp. 23-28.
  • Karlekar & Malavika (1975). “Higher Education and the Scheduled Caste”, Journal of Higher Education, 1(2), pp. 179-187.
  • Katyal & Anita (1989).“UGC plan for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe”, The Times of India, 3 April, p. 3.
  • S. K (2000). Constitutional provisions for educational Development, New Delhi: Gyan publishing house, 2000, pp.5-13.

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