Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Technologies commonly used for the soil remediation include natural attenuation, land farming, biopiling or composting, slurry bioreactor, bioventing, soil vapor extraction, thermal desorption, incineration, soil washing, and land filling. However, these technologies are usually expensive and can lead to incomplete decomposition of contaminants. As mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and expensive.
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- G. U. Chibuike and S. C. Obiora (2013). “Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soils for improved crop performance,” International Journal of Environmental Sciences,4(3)
- N. Das and P. Chandran (2011). “Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants – an overview,” Biotechnol. Res. Int. 11: pp. 1-13.
- Yong-chao Gao, Shu-hai Guo, Jia-ning Wang, Li. Dan, Hui. Wang, and De-Hui Zeng(2014). “Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil,” Chemosphere 117: pp. 486-493.