VALUE BASED HIGHER EDUCATION AND ROLE OF TEACHERS: AN INTROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS



Introduction
The human society is facing a tremendous value crisis and so many unsatisfactory situations have arisen due to crisis of values and character. There is also devaluation of values in various aspects of life, relating to political, social, philosophical, economic, educational, cultural, and administrative and so many other fields. The phenomenon of value crisis has occurred due to multifactor such as conflict between traditional and modernity, personal greed, selfishness, indifference to others, large scale corruption etc. Modern age of science and technology has created industrialization, urbanization and consequently life has given rise to a kind of commercial outlook to life in all its varied manifestation. Lack of proper value orientation of educational system is responsible for value crisis in our society. It is the need of the hour to focus our abilities to seek ways for the development of the non-cognitive domains of human personality. Though the government has taken certain constructive measures to improve the value development, the present educational institutions still proves to be failure as it apparently defies value development. Inculcation of values is influenced by a complex network of environmental factors such as home, school, campus, peer group, community, the media and society at large. Home takes the highest position in the hierarchy followed by school. The first interaction of children, after the parents, is with the teacher, Hence the teacher at all levels has a vital role to play in the pursuit and promotion of the values. Among the different stages of Education, Higher Education is the most significant stage which helps immensely in building upon a nation. According to New Education policy, 1986, Revised in 1992, “Higher Education provides people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues for humanity. It contributes to national development through dissemination of specialized knowledge and skills’’. His holiness The Dalai Lama, speaking at a lecture on “ Education for peace” organized by the NCERT in 2002, pointed out that though secular education was favorable yet it had become completely bereft of value education. He added that to complement education it was essential to introduce children to basic values of humanity like compassion, honesty and respect. The prevailing educational system does not give the deserving importance to values in human life. So, value based education is a great need of hour. The higher educational institutions should play a vital role in promoting values. This article is mainly emphasis on the role of teachers in higher educational institutions in promoting values.

Values in Education
Values are related to the very future of humanity. The activities that are good, useful and valuable from educational point of view are considered as educational values. Higher educational institutions have to play their roles on achieving the goals of values orientation to society. The overall aim of this education in values should-a) form the student consistent with his ultimate goal b) instill in him a sense of responsibility to society c) prepare him for acceptance of leadership d) train him to distinguish between right and wrong e) facilitate him in living a life in conformity with the realistic ideology and f) instill in him the courage and the readiness to bear a model to others. There are certain specific values we desire to realize through our curriculum. These are as-

  • Spiritual values in Education: Spiritualism is a subjective experience that believes in spiritual entities. It is an inner realization of spirit and spiritual values are eternal. Spiritual education set up high ideals and plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the students. Under the influence of this education people in ancient India lived a superior life. It is high time for us to teach our students the fundamental truth like reverence, restraint, broadmindedness, tolerance, love cooperation, sympathy, non-violence etc. 
  • Moral values in Education:  The kind of behavior approved by the people is called moral behavior. An individual can develop moral behavior only when he understands what is good and what is evil, what is right and what is wrong. The consciousness of right and wrong, good and evil is called moral values. It is the self’s awareness of the character of an action as right or wrong.
  • Social values in Education: Individuals constitute society which has certain ideas, models and norms in general in respect of behavior, conduct, duties and responsibilities towards one another. Love to humanity, universal brotherhood, sincerity, honesty and integrity of character, firm attitude of rendering help and doing action and works in general benefit etc. are some of the constituents of healthy social life. True education aims at developing individuals into social beings having these virtues. Social values can be inculcated by introducing a programme for educational value of social service. Social service implies service to society or groups of individual bound together by rules or conventions for achievement of objectives and aims.
  • Health values: Good health is a valuable asset to man that brings for him happiness and prosperity. Sound health is the greatest of all blessings and is a condition for joyful and energetic life. Therefore, it is very much essential for our students to acquire knowledge of diseases, its causes and prevention of physiology and hygiene. Hence, the centers of learning should impart knowledge of health sense, health attitude and health values. The National physical efficiency tests should be administered on a universal scale to assess the development of health values among the students.
  • Recreational values: Recreation refers to both intrinsic and instrumental values. It includes the multifarious programmes organized in educational institutions which give an opportunity to the students for self-expression and self-fulfillment. The laboratories and libraries, play ground, auditorium and common room have high recreational values. These places of the temple of learning help the students to utilize their leisure time for self cultivation through various academic, aesthetic and cultural activities. It makes education meaningful and takes care of the entire personality of the young people, their minds and their bodies.
Role of Teachers
The teacher is the dynamic force of the educational system. Education without a teacher is just like a body without soul. The teachers have the major responsibility and duties for promoting values in the minds of the students. The role of teachers may be delineated as follows-

  • The teacher must follow their professional ethics: Ethics is the system of moral principles and code of conduct by which a profession controls itself and directs and monitors the behavior of its members. The teacher should be dedicated to the subject matter, welfare of the students and high service motive. Moreover maintaining good interpersonal relations with students, colleagues, authorities, guardians and society are considered as professional role of the teachers. The teacher should refrain from inciting students against other students, colleagues or administration.
  • The teacher must have accountability: The teacher’s accountability is essentially a devotion to the teaching profession and a commitment to impart knowledge and skills to the students. It is an obligation to discharge his duty with sincerity and dedication. He should have a sense of moral thinking and ethical consciousness. The teacher must be responsible to the students, to the Head, to the society, to the nation and obviously to himself. 
  • Teacher should inculcate spiritual moral values: In order to provide the young pupils with opportunities for the realization of desirable social as well as spiritual values, multifarious programmes should be organized in the educational institutions. Suitable persons should be invited to deliver inspiring talks on the lives and teachings of great spiritual leaders, their ethical system and philosophy. Broad based spiritual education should be imparted to the students in colleges. 
  • Teacher should inculcate social and civic values: The teacher should organize such activities like NCC, NSSS, scout & Guide that helps the students to develop themselves physically and mentally. Moreover programmes of manual labour as cleanliness of neglected localities, picnics, excursions etc should be arranged to give opportunities to the students for broadening outlooks and understanding humanities and values. The colleges should exercise activities like debates and discussions on the current issues and problems of our nation to inculcate proper civic values and attitudes. Student’s union body should be there to maintain a good cooperation. The students should be involved in constructive group activities in areas that interest them. Association of different departments, clubs like eco-club, science club, red ribbon club and science club. Their activities not only foster and propagate values but also a means of developing better adjusted citizens in the society. 
  • The teacher should possess high moral character: The teacher should have self control, impartial attitude, noble and contented soul and a spirit of renunciation and service. A teacher with a blazing character and freed from commercial faint can e expected to command the respect and admiration of the pupils and produce the necessary effect on their minds by way of helping them manifest the perfection that is already in them. 
  • Maintaining good relationship with students: The teacher should maintain good relationship with the students. The teacher should respect the right and dignity of the students in expressing his/her opinion. He should deal justly and impartially with students regardless of their religion, caste, economic, social and physical characteristics. He should inculcate among students a scientific outlook and respect for physical labour and ideals of democracy, patriotism and peace. 
  • Inculcation of health values: The teachers should organize some health related programmes to impart knowledge of health sense, health attitude and health values to the students. Some mental health and hygiene programmes should be undertaken. To make the students cheerful and energetic, physical exercises like drill, running games and sports should be organized.

Conclusion
Value development is a continuous, cumulative and highly interdependent process touching all the aspects of personality. Value education in all its comprehensiveness involves developing sensitivity to values, an ability to choose the right values, internalizing them, realizing them in one’s life and living in accordance with them. Hence it is the need of the hour to make all possible attempts to inculcate value oriented education in the institutions. The teachers, educational administrators and the people of the society as a whole should support these programmes and devote their time, energy and resources to make this education a success. The teachers must have the accountability to the students, colleagues, guardians, authority and society and should follow their professional ethics. We, all should follow the principle “Live and Let Live”.

References
  • B. S. Das. Principles of education and education in the emerging Indian society, Delhi: Ajanta Prakashan, 2001.
  • L. Koshi (2007). “Value development: Suggestive Strategies,” University News, 45 (52), pp 24-30.
  • R.A. Sharma. Teachers in the emerging Indian Society, Meerut: R Lall Book Publishers, 2009.
  • V. Kesari. Values- the key to a meaningful life, Madras: Sri Ramkrishna Math, 2003.


Jogesh Changmai
About the Author: Shri Jogesh Changmai is an Assistant professor in the Department of Education at D.C.B. Girls’ College, Jorhat, Assam. He has got 10 years of teaching experience and co-authored six books on Education besides presenting a number of papers at national and international seminars. He has also contributed a numbers of articles and papers in various Journals and Edited Books. Now he is engaged in research work under Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam. [Read More]


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