BOOSTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CHILLI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. VAR. ACUMINATUM) THROUGH INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT - A SUCCESS STORY


Cachar district is mainly a rice growing pocket and farmers of this region practice mono cropping in the rice fields due to unavailability of irrigation facility. However, it produces substantial quantity of vegetables during Rabi and Summer seasons, mainly in the riverine areas of the Barak and its tributaries and some farmers also fit vegetables in Rice based cropping systems. Buribail part-I, a village of Cachar district, is one among the villages to grow vegetables in Rice based cropping systems. 

The population of the village is mainly comprised of farm families and in terms of progressive farmers, it would be one of the leading villages of this district. During formal and informal meetings with farmers in Buribail part-I village, it could be established that Chilli, Tomato, Cauliflower, Cabbage etc. are the predominant crops in rice based cropping system during Rabi season. Mostly the farmers were found to grow chilli as a mixed crop either with Rajmah, Pumpkin, Radish, Knol khol etc. The farmers, generally, do not cultivate chilli as a sole crop due to their age old habit of practicing mixed cropping. However, there were several reasons for low productivity of chilli crop viz. lack of knowledge about suitable package of practices, unavailability and unawareness about the importance of improved varieties, use of imbalance dose of fertilizers and inappropriate plant protection measures due toerroneous diagnosis of the disorders etc. Under these circumstances, the scientists of KVK Cachar introduced improved production technologies of chilli crop such as Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) in high yielding chilli variety Tejaswini. The technology includes use of Biofertilizer incubated (for 15
days with Azospirillum, Azotobacter and PSB @ 1% on dry weight) compost @ 1.0 t/ha mixed with 50% of the Recommended Dose of fertilizers. The fertilizers were applied in ring method in 2 equal splits, first at the time of planting and the other at 30 days after planting (DAP). The infestation of aphid, which is very common in this region, was effectively managed through application of Imidachloropid @ 0.5 ml/liter water. In addition to that seedlings roots were treated with Captaf @ 3gm/litre water prior to transplanting.

Chilli has emerged to be a promising substitute of other Rabi crops in Cachar district as the root rot disease in majority of the popular Rabi crops has reduced the yield even up to 50-70%. In addition, the improved cultivar “Tejaswini” is also suitable for early (September) as well as late (November) sown crop in irrigated conditions. The cultivar yielded 159.37 q/ha on an average in the demonstrated village and the variety was seemed to be convincingly acceptable among farmers and consumers due to its high pungency.

Table 1: Comparison between recommended (RP) and traditional practices (TP)

Sl.
No.
Practice
Recommended practices
Traditional practices
1.
Variety
Tejaswini
Tejaswini
2.
Spacing
45 X 60 cm2
45 X 45cm2
3.
Fertilizer dose (NPK @ kg/ha)
N:P:K::60:30:30
N:P:K::90:30:30
4.
Bio-fertilizer
1%PSB & Azospirillum incubated vermicompost @1.0 t/ha
Nil
5.
Weeding
3 times
3 times
6.
Irrigation
5 times
4 times

Table 2: Comparison between Plant and yield attributes obtained from the two cultivation practices


Sl.
No.
Practice
Recommended practices
Traditional practices
1.
Plant height (cm)
123.3
111.6
2.
Branches/plant
11.3
9.0
3.
Average length & diameter of fruit (cm)
6.88 & 2.77
6.82 & 2.75
4.
Av. Yield (q/ha)
159.37
87.54

Md. Qutubuddin Borbhuiya, a progressive farmer of the village Buribail part-I adopted the described improved production technology of Chilli and achieved higher productivity (166.50 q/ha) and higher net income (`181750.00/ha) as compared to the traditional system of farming (87.54 q/ha and `81310.00/ha, respectively). Thus, cultivation of chilli using improved cultivar (Tejaswini) along with recommended production technology have managed to bring about changes in

social status and standard of living of the farmer. Similar growth in production and productivity were also recorded in many other crops through regular technical assistances by the scientists of KVK-Cachar result in improved socio-economic conditions of the farmers. Moreover, the enthusiasm of the farmers towards scientific cultivation practices also boost up the moral of the agriculture extension workers to keep on performing their duties more efficiently in due course. In the subsequent year the demand of the technology among the adjacent farmers was very high which symbolises the acceptability and reliance on the improved agricultural technologies being disseminated by the KVK.


Economic Analysis of the Technology
Sl.
No.
Particulars
Improved Practices
Farmers Practices
1.
Technology used
Integrated Nutrient Management in chilli Var. Tejaswini
Traditional production practices of Chilli var. Tejaswini
2.
Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha)
68,000.00
50,000.00
3.
Productivity (Q/ha)
166.50  q/ ha
87.54 q/ ha
4.
Gross Income (Rs/ha)
2,49,750.00
1,31,310.00
5.
Net Income (Rs/ha)
1,81,750.00
81,310.00
6.
B:C Ratio
3.67:1
2.63:1


About the authors:

Mr. Britan Rahman: Subject Matter Specialist (Soil Science), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Arunachal, Cachar, Assam Agricultural University, Arunachal, Assam-788 0258.








Mr. Manabendra Bharali: Subject Matter Specialist (Agronomy), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Arunachal, Cachar, Assam Agricultural University, Assam-788 0258.







Dr. Pranabjyoti Sarma: Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Arunachal, Cachar, Assam Agricultural University, Arunachal, Assam-788 0258.







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