EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT OF ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF CLASS XI OF DIBRUGARH DISTRICT, ASSAM WITH RESPECT TO THEIR GENDER AND LOCALITY

Pronita Kalita
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Sonari College, Sivasagar, Assam, India and
Dr. Neeta Kalita Baruah
Professor, Department of Education, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Abstract
The present study was undertaken to measure the Emotional Adjustment of adolescent students of Class XI of Dibrugarh District, Assam with regard to their gender and locality. For these purpose 400 students (200 male and 200 female) from Class XI were selected from 20 institutions of Dibrugarh District offering Higher Secondary course (+2 level) under Assam Higher Secondary Education Council (AHSEC). A standardized inventory, the Adolescent Emotional Adjustment Inventory (AEAI) was used for data collection and‘t’ test was used for data analysis. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in emotional adjustment of adolescent students with respect to their gender but a significant difference was found with respect to their locality.

Key words: Inventory, Multidimensional complexities, Emotional adjustment scores

1.   Introduction

Adjustment is a never ending process. Every living being of the world struggles to adjust in the surrounding atmosphere for survival. Human beings are not apart from this continuous process. In the course of different stages of human development adolescence period is one of the most problematic period regarding social, emotional, sexual and academic adjustment. During this period adolescents enter puberty and develop individual identity. They start to recognize their share of role in the society and find themselves in a constant contrast of dream and reality, thought and action, prediction and practicality, conjecture and experience, expectation and commitment. But suddenly, when the adolescents discover themselves surrounded by heaps of problems, these problems make them maladjusted in their social set up. Adjustment is related with the mental set up of the children, how they think, behave and react to their surrounding environment. Society consists of several multidimensional complexities, and as a social being every individual must perform some activities which will help them to cope with the social and cultural adjustment. The term “Adjustment” refers generally to the relationship that any organism establishes with respect to its environment. The word “Adjustment” originates from the French word “Ajoster” which means “to approximate”. It is a state of complete equilibrium between an organism and its environment. Emotion is a complex feeling and a state of mind accompanied with physiological arousal and overt behaviour. Etymologically, the word Emotion is derived from Latin word Emovere which means to stir up, to agitate. According to Crow and Crow, “An emotion is an affective experience that accompanies generalized inner adjustment and mental and physiological stirred up states in the individual, and that shows itself in his overt behaviour. There are three basic components of emotion: feeling, physiological reactions, and behaviour.”  Feeling is the most obvious aspect of emotion; when the individual is stirred up or moved, this reaction can have motivational significance as the individual tries to attain or dispel the feeling. The physiological component of emotion includes a widespread excitatory and inhibitory reaction that occurs through arousal of the sympathetic nervous system. Behavioural component is the most evident to show the degree of the emotional experience. Behaviour of an individual helps to identify the feelings focusing upon facial expression and postural – gestural reactions. The optimal level of emotional arousal for human performance depends upon the complexity of the task.  the term emotion is used in the context of emotional adjustment of adolescents. Emotional adjustment refers to personal adjustment or psychological adjustment. It is the maintenance of emotional equilibrium in the face of internal and external stressors. This is facilitated by cognitive processes of acceptance and adaptation. The capacity of emotional adjustment is an important aspect of mental health.  World Health Organization defines mental health as "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”. When mental health is compromised or not developed, psychopathology and mental disorders can occur. Emotional or behavioural symptoms or emotional domains are depression, anxiety, school behavioural problems, fighting, work problems, academic problems, social conflicts or social withdrawal and physical complaints.  Tulpule (1977) conducted a pilot study about adjustment of pre- university students and found that in the area of emotional adjustment about 50% girls were found to be emotionally maladjusted, 17% showed average adjustment and 3% were found to be well adjusted. In the area of social adjustment 30% showed poor adjustment with submissive and retiring tendency, and nearly 6% indicated aggressiveness in social contracts. Goswami (1980) found that the number of problems increased with age. The analysis of results showed that the adolescents girls encounter maximum number of problems in the emotional and mental areas followed by problems in school and home areas. The physical and sexual was the least problem encountering areas. Gupta (1996) found a significant relationship in adolescent girls on feelings of inferiority with emotional and social adjustment.
         
2. Objectives

  • To study the emotional adjustment of adolescent students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.
  • To compare the emotional adjustment of adolescent male and female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.
  • To compare the emotional adjustment of rural and urban adolescent male students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.
  • To compare the emotional adjustment of rural and urban adolescent female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam. 


3. Hypotheses

NH 1: There is no significant difference between the emotional adjustment of adolescent male and female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.
NH 2: There is no significant difference between the emotional adjustment of rural and urban adolescent male students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.
NH 3: There is no significant difference between the emotional adjustment of rural and urban adolescent female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.

4.   Methodology

The total sample of the study comprised of 400 adolescent students (200 Male and 200 Female) of the age group of 16/17 to 18/19 years studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Purposive sampling technique was used for selection of 20 institutions (H.S. school and college) and incidental sampling technique was used to select the students’ sample. The tool used for data collection was Adolescents Emotional Adjustment Inventory (AEAI) constructed and designed by R.V. Patil. The survey was conducted during the academic year 2013-2014.

5.   Results and Discussion

The Mean, S.D. and Critical Ratio (CR) were calculated for the statistical analysis of data. The Mean score of female and male adolescent students on emotional adjustment score were calculated as 45.08 and 44.71 with S.D. 6.17 and 5.22 respectively. As shown in Table. 1, the obtained C.R. (Critical Ratio) was 0.65 which was less than the table value at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis (NH 3.01) that there is no significant difference between the emotional adjustment of adolescent male and female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam, is accepted.  In other words, there was no significant difference in the emotional adjustment between the adolescent female and adolescent male students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam.

Table 1: Significance of difference between the Mean scores of Emotional Adjustments of Adolescent students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam, with respect to their gender (Female and Male)


Table 2:  Significance of difference between the Mean scores of Emotional Adjustments of Adolescent Male students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam, with respect to their locality (Urban/Rural)


Table 3:  Significance of difference between the Mean scores of Emotional Adjustments of Adolescent Female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam, with respect to their locality (Rural /Urban)


Table 2 indicates that Mean scores of rural and urban male students were 46.05 and 44.12 with S.D. 6.61 and 5.56 respectively. The calculated C.R. was 2.24 which was greater than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance.  Hence, the null hypothesis (NH 2) that there is no significant difference between the emotional adjustment of rural and urban adolescent male students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam is rejected. It implies that the adolescent male students of the urban and rural areas studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam, differ significantly in their emotional adjustment scores, with respect to their locality.

Table 3 indicates that Mean scores of urban and rural adolescent female students were 45.51 and 43.92 with S.D. 5.57 and 4.74 respectively. The calculated value of C.R. was 2.18 which was greater than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance.  Thus, the third null hypothesis (NH 3) that there is no significant difference between the emotional adjustment of rural and urban adolescent female students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam is rejected.  The conclusion may therefore be made that the findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the emotional adjustment scores of adolescent female students of rural and urban areas studying in Higher Secondary institution of Dibrugarh District, Assam.

1.    Policy Implications
In short the present study has wide implications in various areas of education as mentioned below-
  • This study will help to find out the levels of social adjustment and emotional adjustment of class XI adolescent students of Dibrugarh District, Assam.
  • This study will also give an idea about some common problems of adolescent related to their social, emotional and physical health.
  • Adjustment is a very important aspect to mould the balanced human personality. This study will provide useful knowledge about different aspect of social and emotional adjustment of adolescent students for teachers, parents, counsellors, supervisors, educational administrators and students themselves.
  • Adjustment has a positive impact on academic achievement. In this study an attempt has been done to find out the relationship between social adjustment and academic achievement and emotional adjustment and academic achievement.
  • The outcome of this study will definitely provide a clear cut idea to the administrators and parents to deal with the adjustment problems of adolescents and in framing useful educational programmes and strategies to suit and fulfil the needs of the students.

2. Conclusion
From the above findings and discussion it can be concluded safely that there was no significant difference between adolescent female and male students studying in Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam, regarding their emotional adjustment. It was also found in the study that there was a significant difference between the emotional adjustment of adolescent male students of rural and urban areas and also between the adolescent female students of rural and urban areas studying in institutions of Dibrugarh District offering Higher Secondary course. Thus, the study on the emotional adjustment of adolescent students studying in the XIth class of the Higher Secondary institutions of Dibrugarh District, Assam revealed that students were found to have significant difference in their emotional adjustment scores with respect to their locality but no significant difference was seen with respect to their gender.

References
  • K. Baruah and J. Baruah (2009). Adjustment differences of adolescent of working and non-working mothers in the area of education. Indian Psychological Review, 72(4), pp. 213-216.
  • W.James Best and V. Kahn . Research in education (6th ed). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1989.
  • N. Goswami (1980). Adjustment problems of school going adolescent girls and the development of an adjustment inventory for their measurement. Third Survey of Research in Education (1978-1983). New Delhi: NCERT.
  • John W. Santrock. Educationally Psychology: Second EditionMcgraw Hill Publicatioin
  • M. Tulpule (1977).  A pilot study of adjustment of pre-university students of the SNDT arts college for women. Third Survey of Research in Education (1978-1983) New Delhi: NCERT.


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