GENESIS OF MASSIVE RIVER BANK EROSION IN MAJULI, THE LARGEST RIVER ISLAND OF THE WORLD AND A SUSTAINABLE MEASURE FOR REDRESSAL: A MORPHOGENETIC ANALYSIS

Madhujya Mili
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Mariani College, Mariani, Jorhat, Assam, India
and
Dr. Bhupendra Nath Goswami
Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Mariani College, Mariani, Jorhat, Assam, India

Abstract

Majuli, as seen and observed, suffering badly in consequence of wide spread severe bank erosion which caused serious damage to the residential blocks, crop fields grazing land and enmass open areas. The causes and consequences are need to be analyzed in order to have some definite and effective solution to this violent and volatile issue. The study also reveals that Majuli, being located inside the two channels of a river, creates bottleneck problem and restricts the free flow of channel water in its straight course of flow. Inconsequence, it accelerates the velocity of channel water to empower for more erosion. A systematic and procedural historiographic analysis along with the components of sub aerial erosion and other geomorphic processes are taken into consideration to have an overall picture of the changing status of topography along with other surfacial form of Majuli. Through this research article, an attempt is made to to highlight the genesis of massive bank erosion in Majuli.

Key words:  Recurring occurrence of flood, Historiographic analysis, Old alluvium, Vetiver grass

1.   Introduction
Flood is unopposingly regarded as one most devastation among all other natural hazards. It is only true in areas characteristically which are chronic flood prone. River bank erosion, on the other hand, although is not extensive like flood but its intensity of devastating is much more effective while compared to the devastating by floods. Recurring occurrence of flood every year in Majuli, a riverine island of the Brahmaputra is not so derogatory in comparison to bank erosion.

Majuli, as seen and observed, suffering badly in consequence of wide spread severe bank erosion which caused serious damage to the residential blocks, crop fields grazing land and enmass open areas. The causes and consequences are need to be analyzed in order to have some definite and effective solution to this violent and volatile issue. The research article primarily attempts to analyze the deploring situation of river bank erosion to derive effective sustainable measures to resist violence of river bank erosion. The catastrophic scenario of bank erosion simply can be assessed where the total area of the island reduced from 1256 km2 in 1940 to only 514 km2 in 1990.

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