NIGERIA AT 50: ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND AGENDA FOR 2020 CORRUPTION AND ANTI-CORRUPTION CRUSADE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADMINISTRATORS

Pastor (Dr) Paul Nwakpa
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

Abstract
There is no denying the fact that corruption adversely affects the productivity of public Investment and distorts the effects of industrial policy on investment. Corruption is both pervasive and significant in Nigeria. Incidentally, Nigeria has already been ranked by the Berlin based Transparency international as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. This ranking was of course, based on a weighted average of corruption perception indices. The overall index assesses the degree to which public officials and politicians are involved in such corrupt practices of accepting bribes and embezzling public funds. Therefore in order to reduce corruption in Nigeria, (the Federal Government including stakeholders must adapt some stern measures by punishing those found guilt v for corrupt practices, regardless of their social status in the society. As a matter of fact, one is not comfortable with the present practice whereby treasury looters are not given severe punishment to serve as deterrent to others. In most cases the offenders are just being transferred to another place and that is all. It is quite painful to note that any person who decides to work honestly, faces a lot of dehumanizing experience in life. The research article has an attempt to examine the theoretical issues on the determinations and impact of corruption in Nigeria.

Key words: Productivity of public Investment, Factors influencing corruption, Impact of corruption, Vision 2020   

1.   Introduction
Nigeria with a population of over 100 million people is the most populous country in sub-saharan Africa. At the time of political independence on October 1" 1960, Nigeria was known for her exports of agricultural products including groundnuts, palm oil, cocoa, cotton, soyabeans, timber, hides and skins. Then during the oil boom period of the seventies, Nigeria made headlines with her oil wealth as the country that is richly endowed with oil and natural gas resources capable of financing a number of important projects, consumption and developmental needs with a per capita income of 1100 dollar. During the late 1970s, Nigeria was regarded as the fastest growing country in sub-saharan Africa.

Since then Nigeria has been rarefy off the world press, but mostly due to notoriety rather than fame. One persistent accolade conferred on Nigeria is that, i£ is one of the most corrupt countries in the world. The discussion on this paper centres mainly on corruption. The term corruption has different meanings depending on the context it is being used. However, the simplest definition of corruption is the misappropriation of public funds or the conversion of public funds to private use. In more broader meaning, Macrae (2000) defined corruption as an arrangement that involves two parties that is the demander and the supplier who has an influence on the allocation of resources either immediately or in the future. The demander involves in the abuse of public office. Tanzi (1998) defined corruption as the abuse of power for private benefits.

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