Social science is an umbrella term that refers to a number of fields outside of natural sciences. Research is considered as an integral part of growth and expansion of social sciences. In today’s globalized society, its importance has increased immensely. These days social science is considered complementary to hard science to make the right policy choice by the policy makers. Outcome of social science research is used to recommend final course of action. Social science research now has the challenge of equipping itself to meet the needs of the rapidly transforming society. Quality of research on the other hand, depends on the understanding of the research problem, the attendant research methodology and techniques used for analysis. Researchers and practitioners   now have access to a much richer and more varied choice of data than the earlier generations. So, they can easily opt for quantitative research that relies on quantitative techniques. Quantitative techniques have high reliability and other researchers can replicate the studies with previous data collection and check the validity of the results. In social science research, besides polls, questionnaires and surveys, a wide range of statistical techniques are used to analyze data from simple graphs to tests of statistical significance. Quantitative techniques like ANOVA, regression, correlation etc. are often used in educational research. Of course, it is true that quantitative techniques cannot explain why social phenomena occur, they can only quantify the fact they deal with. In social sciences, quantitative techniques are widely used in psychology, economics, demography, marketing, sociology, political science, community health, health and human development. It is also used in history and anthropology, but less frequently. For example, quantitative history is an approach to historical research that makes use of quantitative and computer tools. In economics, quantitative techniques include mathematical modeling, optimization techniques, game theory, linear programming, statistical and econometric techniques. Quantitative techniques are used to forecast demand and supply.  Management of the organization wants to make most effective use of its resources, machinery, labour, money, warehouse, space and raw materials in order to produce products and provide services. With the limitations of workers and resources the firm is to maximize its profits. With the help of linear programming technique, researchers compute optimum way to allocate resources so that output is maximized. With the help of quantitative technique a complex problem is reduced and restructured to a limited no. of variables. Quantitative techniques are a part of human geography since 1950.Quantitative techniques are used to analyze demographic change. In marketing research, data mining is used for analyzing large data sets, uncovering patterns and correlation burried within raw data.
In social science research, phenomena which are not numerical in nature is examined using Likert Scale. General conclusion arrived at from qualitative research are only hypotheses. But quantitative techniques can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true. So, quantitative techniques are fast becoming indispensable in case of social science research.

Editorial note prepared by
Dr Susmita Priyadarshini
Professor and Economist


This issue of the e-journal is released and dedicated in the name of four renowned personalities of Assam, namely, (i) Eminent economist, academician and author, Prof. Dilip Kumar Baruah (Born, 16 March 1943 and death, 27 April 2017); (ii) Creator of Omar Khayam, recipient of Assam Sahitya Award in 2016, Pradip Saikia (Expired on 10th April, 2017); (iii) Author, Arpan Saikia (Expired on 26th April, 2017) and (iv) Noted Assamese playwright, novelist, Padma Shri (2010), recipient of Sahitya Akademi (1998) and Sangeet Natak Akademi (1998) for literature and also recipient of Assam Valley Literary Award (2005), respected Arun Sarma who breathed his last on 27th March, 2017. Demise of above mentioned four personalities is undoubtedly a great loss to the society, but their works and contributions will give us light ahead always.

We sinerely express our thankfulness to Madam, Dr Susmita Priyadarshini, Professor in Economics, DCB Girls’ College, Jorhat for her unconditional association towards growth of the e-Journal and also for writing in this issue from Editors’ Desk.

Dr Susmita Priyadarshini writes regularly in newspapers like The Assam Tribune, The Sentinel, etc. She has the credit of a good number of books gaining popularity. The title of the best to quote is ‘Contemporary Economic Issues - A Collection of Essays’, published by Bedakatha Books & Publications, Jorhat, 2016. Besides, some scholarly research articles have also been published in reputed international and national journals.

In presenting this issue with multidisciplinary research articles contributed by the international and national level scholars, we are ever indebted to Madam, Dr Susmita Priyadarshini for her guidance and we are inspired in the ideas and knowledge she shared with us.

We are very much grateful to all authors, research scholars, writers those who have given us opportunity again to publish their works. We also acknowledge with sincere thanks to all those who extended whole-hearted support and cooperation in shaping this issue including the honorary advisory board, honorary technical review board and all members of editorial team.

Happy reading again!
Vol-4, Issue-3; May-June 2017

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