ROLE OF ICT IN EDUCATION

Lieutenant Dr. Shahjahan Ali
  

1.Introduction

Knowledge, innovation and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong repercussions on many economic sectors, such as informatics and communication, finance, and transportation sectors (Foray, 2004; Boyer, 2002). ICT has also had an influence on education. The knowledge-based economy for example sets a new scene for education and new challenges and prospects for the education sector. In the first place education is a prerequisite of the knowledge-based economy and the production and use of new knowledge both require a more educated population and workforce. Secondly, ICTs are a very powerful tool for diffusing knowledge and information, which is a fundamental aspect of the education process. In this capacity, they play a pedagogic role that could in principle complement (or even compete with) the traditional practices of the education sector. These are therefore two challenges for the education sector if it is to continue to expand with the help (or under the pressure) of new forms of learning. Thirdly, ICTs sometimes induce innovations in the ways business is conducted in the education sector. For example, navigation does not necessarily involve the same cognitive processes since the Global Positioning System (GPS) was invented (e.g. Hutchins, 1995). Also scientific research in many fields is revolutionized by the new possibilities offered by ICTs, from digitization of information to new recording, simulation and data processing possibilities (Atkins and al., 2003). Another question to ask then is, “Could ICTs similarly revolutionize education, especially as education deals directly with the codification and transmission of knowledge and information?” These two activities (codification and transmission) are effectively decoupled by the ICT revolution.
Nowadays the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially internet or e-learning, in the education sector plays an important role, especially in the process of empowering the technology into the educational activities. Education sector can be the most effective sector to anticipate and eliminate the negative impact of ICT. Technology (internet) in another side can be the most effective way to increase the student’s knowledge.

Being aware of the significant role of ICT (internet) in our life, especially in the educational activities, education authorities should be wise enough in implementing the strategies to empower ICT in supporting the teaching and learning process in the classroom. ICT is not just the bloom of the educational activities, but also it will be the secondary option to improve the effective and meaningful educational process.

The main purpose of the Strategy for Information and Communication Technology Implementation in Education is to provide the prospects and trends of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into the general educational activities.

2.Relevance of ICT in the present context
There are some unavoidable facts in the modern education; First, the ICT has been developing very rapidly nowadays. Therefore, in order to balance it, the whole educational system should be reformed and ICT should be integrated into educational activities.

Second, the influence of ICT, especially internet (open source tool) cannot be ignored in our student’s lives. So, the learning activities should be reoriented and reformulated, from the manual source centered to the open source ones. In this case the widely use of internet access has been an unavoidable policy that should be anticipated by schools authorities.

Third, the presence of multimedia games and online games by internet has been another serious problem that should be wisely handled by the educational institutions. The students cannot be exterminated from this case. They can have and do with it wherever and whenever they want. Schools, as a matter of fact, do not have enough power and time to prevent or stop it after school times. Meanwhile, most parents do not have enough times to accompany and control their children. So, the students have large opportunities to do with multimedia games or online games or browsing the negative and porn sites. Having been addicted, the students will have too little time to study, and even do not want to attend classes.

In such situation, education institutions play an important role to eradicate these problems. One of which is by facilitating the students to do edutainment or educational games. Schools can let their students be familiar with educational games adjusted by their teachers. Besides, they can also support and facilitate their students to have their own blogs in the internet. A lot of Weblog providers are free to the users, such as Word Press. In their blogs, the students can create and write something, like an article, poem, news, short stories, features, or they can also express their opinion by an online forum provided in the internet. They are able to share experiences throughout their blogs to others from all over the world. I think it will be an interesting activity for them, and it will lessen their time to visit the negative or porn sites existed.

By doing so, I think our young generation will get more and more information and knowledge by browsing in the internet. They can also create innovation in web design that it may be out of the formal curriculum content, but it will be useful for their future.

Fourth, the implementation of ICT in education has not been a priority trend of educational reform and the state paid little attention to it. Therefore, there should be an active participation, initiative and good will of the schools and the government institutions to enhance ICT implementation at school.

Fifth, the teachers should be the main motivator and initiator of the ICT implementation at schools. The teachers should be aware of the social change in their teaching activities. They should be the agent of change from the classical method into the modern one. They must also be the part of the global change in learning and teaching modification.


3.Aim and Objectives of ICT implementation in Education 
  • To implement the principle of life-long learning / education.
  • To increase a variety of educational services and medium / method.
  • To promote equal opportunities to obtain education and information.
  • To develop a system of collecting and disseminating educational information.
  • To promote technology literacy of all citizens, especially for students.
  • To develop distance education with national contents.
  • To promote the culture of learning at school (development of learning skills, expansion of optional education, open source of education, etc.)
  • To support schools in sharing experience and information with others.

4.Advantages of Using ICT in Teaching - Learning Process

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have recently gained a groundswell of interest, becoming a significant research area for many scholars around the globe. One of the reasons for this surge is that nature of ICT has greatly changed the face of education. For most European countries, the use of ICT, in education and training, has become a priority during the last decade; however, very few have achieved progress. Indeed, only a small percentage of schools, in a few countries, effectively used ICT to support and change the teaching and learning process in diverse subject areas.  Others are still in the early phases of adopting ICT.

Balanskat, Blamire & Kefala (2006), conducted a study carried out in national, international, and European schools, with the aim of gathering evidence regarding the advantages and benefits of ICT in school achievements. The study sought to measure the impact of ICT on student performance by trying to establish a link between the use of ICT and students’ results in exams. The findings are interesting. ICT has shown a positive impact on student performance in primary school, particularly in English language, although the effects are less significant in the sciences.  Schools with higher levels of e-maturity (E-maturity is demonstrated when students apply ICT in strategic and discriminating ways, taking into consideration a balance of advantages and alternatives.) show a rapid increase in performances in scores compared to those with lower levels.

In addition, schools with adequate ICT resources achieve better results than those that are not so well-equipped. There appears to be a direct correlation to well-appointed ICT schools and a significant improvement on learners’ performances. Finally, many teachers are convinced that educational achievements of pupils are due to high ICT utilization. In fact, a high percentage of teachers in Europe (86%), state that pupils are more motivated when computers and the internet are being used in class.

Many pupils consider ICT tools very helpful for completing assignments. Also, teachers are attuned to the fact that ICT enables students with special needs or difficulties to achieve and grow as well.  ICT may also help to reduce social disparities between pupils, since they work in teams in order to achieve a given task or common goal. Additionally, students often assume more responsibilities when they use ICT, such as organizing their work through digital portfolios or projects.  The study also showed that ICT has had a significant impact on teachers and the teaching processes.

Government interventions and training seminars have encouraged the use of ICT tools to stimulate teachers.  Indeed, an absolute majority of teachers in Europe (90 %), claim to use ICT to complete tasks such as preparing lessons and sequencing classroom activities.  Therefore, by utilizing ICT, teachers are able to plan their lessons more efficiently. ICT also helps teachers to work in teams and share ideas related to their school’s curriculum. There is also evidence that broadband (a form of high speed internet) and interactive whiteboards play a central role in fostering teachers’ communications and help to increase collaboration between educators.

The ICT Test Bed Evaluation (Underwood 2006), provides evidence that many teachers use ICT to support innovative education. The report states, “New technologies that provide a good fit with existing practices, such as interactive whiteboards, are first to be embedded, but others, like video conferencing, digital video and virtual learning environments are now being incorporated, providing evidence of ongoing learning by the workforce. Training needs to continue to support innovative pedagogy.”

Both of these examples show that ICT is continuously being integrated into the traditional classroom setting. Therefore, ICT can improve teaching by enhancing prior knowledge and introducing new ways of teaching and learning. Transforming teaching is more difficult to achieve, “changes that take full advantage of ICT will only happen slowly over time, and only if teachers continue to experiment with new approaches.” (Underwood 2006)  This evaluation came from a teacher training seminar in Information and Technology (IT) during the Information Technology Management Forum (ITMF) project. It demonstrates that teachers have not fully adopted the use of ICT in education. However, many educators continue to change their way of thinking about the application of ICT in education and the learning process.

Accordingly, although many teachers have increased their use of ICT in lessons where students look for information on the internet and then use it afterwards for subject specific areas, hardly any teachers use ICT for class presentations. Furthermore, teachers do not use ICT to engage students more actively to produce knowledge. Similarly, the e-learning Nordic 2006 study shows an increase in the use of ICT to teach but not to innovate teaching methods, stating, “ICT generally has a positive impact on teaching and learning situations, but compared with the ideal expectations; the impact of ICT on teaching and learning must still be considered to be limited.” (Ramboll, 2006).

Many teachers use ICT to support traditional learning methods, for example, information retrieval in which students are ‘passive learners of knowledge’ instead of ‘active producers, able to take part in the learning process.’ In a document entitled Teaching and Learning with ICT, G. Galea (2002), it is explained how ICT can promote teaching and learning. According to Galea, there are two main reasons to increase the use of ICT in education in the United Kingdom. First, ICT can change the lessons’ pace.  She states that children in modern society need to develop sufficient skills to take full advantage of the new opportunities that ICT offers. Secondly, there is a growing rise of academic interest in the UK, especially in how technological tools can enhance the quality of teaching and learning in schools, and by doing so, help learners to achieve better outcomes.

5.Conclusion

There are many critical issues surrounding ICT in tertiary education that need to be addressed in order to fulfill its objectives. These include: widening access to educational opportunities; enhancing the quality of learning; and reducing the cost of tertiary education. E-learning is, in all its forms, a relatively recent phenomenon in tertiary education that neither has not radically transformed teaching and learning practices nor significantly changed the access, costs, and quality of tertiary education. As this article has shown, ICT or  e-learning has grown at a rapid pace and has enhanced the overall learning and teaching experience in developed countries with less use demonstrated in developing countries, like India, due to high cost of power generation and access to ICT facilities. While e-learning has not lived up to its most ambitious promises to stem radical innovations in the pedagogic and organizational models of the tertiary education, it has quietly enhanced and improved the traditional learning processes. Most institutions, especially in developing countries like India, are still in the early phase of e-learning adoption, characterized by important enhancements of the learning process but no radical change in learning and teaching.
ICTs can be used through e-education to spread quality education and pedagogy. A balanced blend of technology and content offers a window of opportunity to the learners in the rural schools to bridge the digital divide. The e-learning system is a comprehensive and well thought-out initiative to open new vistas of learning and to provide a level playing field to schools’ students in rural areas and isolated towns. This highlights the need to bridge the diverse proliferation of education across different socio-economic and geographic segments of the country.
The ICTs programs developed impact when and where students learn. In the past, educational institutions provided little choice for students in terms of the method and manner in which programs were delivered. Students typically were forced to accept what was delivered and institutions tended to be quite traditional in terms of the delivery of their programs. Learning through e-education is now creating competitive edges through the choices they are offering to the students. These choices extend from when students can choose to learn to how and where they learn.
Like other innovations, the innovations of e-learning, ICTs, and open resources may eventually live up to their more radical promises in the future and really lead to inventions in new ways of teaching, learning, and interacting within a knowledge community constituted of learners and teachers. However, in order to head towards these advanced innovations, a sustainable innovation and investment model needs to be developed. While the first challenge is technical, it will also require a broad willingness of tertiary education institutions to search for new combinations of input of faculty, facilities and technology and new ways of organizing their teaching activities. Similar to ICT investments in other sectors, the cost-effectiveness of e-learning investments will depend on whether new organizational and knowledge management practices are adopted.
The level of literacy of the country itself is also likely to increase because e-learning is possible in all Indian languages as well as English language components. The migration of students towards towns and cities for studying may be reversed. Availability of quality education at their door steps should result in increased opportunities to learning which should translate to increased earning power. This increased knowledge and awareness also increases overall growth of skilled manpower in the country.
In order to balance with ICT, the whole educational system should be reformed and ICT should be integrated into educational activities. There should be an active participation, initiative and good will of the schools and the government institutions to enhance ICT implementation at school.

References
  • A.W. Bates. Technology, e-learning and distance education. New York: Routledge, 1995.
  • D. Harley, J. Henke, S. Lawrence, F. McMartin, M. Maher, M. Gawlik and P. Muller (2003). “Costs, culture, and complexity: An analysis of technology enhancements in a large lecture course of UC Berkeley,” Center for Studies in Higher Education, 3.03
  • P.A. David (2004), “Toward a cyber infrastructure from enhanced scientific collaboration: Providing its ‘Soft’ foundations may be the hardest threat,” Paper presented at the International Conference Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge-Economy, National Academy of Science, Washington D.C., 10-11 January 2005.
  • R. (2000), “Knowledge and innovation systems”, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Editor, in Knowledge Management in the technology.
  • S. Cunningham, Y. Ryan, L. Stedman, S. Tapsall, S. Bagdon, T. Flew, and P. Coaldrake. The business of borderless education. Canberra, Australia: Australian Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, 2000.

About the author: The author, Lieutenant Dr. Shahjahan Ali is presently worked as Assistant Professor at the department of Education, B. H. College, Howly, Assam, India.


1 comment:

  1. the modern use of electronic educational technology (also called e-learning) had grown at 14 times the rate of traditional learning. top essay writing

    ReplyDelete

Share Every Sense on Art, Culture & Literature; Travel & Tourism; Commerce & Economy; Science & Technology; etc. Send us your Write-up by Email: dimorianreview@gmail.com

DIMORIAN REVIEW WELCOMES YOUR ASSOCIATION AS CONTRIBUTOR

Share every sense on Art, Culture & Literature; Travel & Tourism; Commerce & Economy; Science & Technology; etc. Publish Article, Story, Poetry, Book Review, Travelogue, Recipe and News. Send us your creative contents written or transcreated in English at E-mail:dimorianreview@gmail.com

Get Free Updates at Your Inbox! Enter Your Email Address:

HAPPY TO SEE YOU HERE. PLEASE VISIT AGAIN. HAVE GOOD TIME!

Twitter Bird Gadget